Tuesday, March 11, 2008

Class XII biology concise notes on startegies for increasing food production

Strategies for enhancement in food production
Animal husbandry

· It is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock (usually goat, sheep, buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle etc.; also extended to fish, poultry )
· Both science as well as art
· Fisheries include rearing, catching, selling etc., of fish, mollusks (shell – fish) and crustaceans (prawns, crabs etc.)
· >70 % of the world livestock populations (< 25% production) is in India and China
· Productivity per unit is very low
· Newer technologies need to be applied for improving quality and productivity of livestock
1. Management of farms and farm animals
1.1. Dairy Farm Management:
· Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for human consumption.
· Dairy farm management deals with processes and systems that increase yield and improve quality of milk.
· Milk quality depends on quality of breeds

Good quality breeds: Characteristics
1. High yielding potential (milk production)
2. Resistance to diseases
3. Adaptability to climatic conditions

To realize high yield potential:
1. Proper housing facilities
2. Adequate water availability
3. Disease free maintenance
4. Sufficient quantity of good quality fodder
Milking, storage and transport of milk and milk products:
· Stringent cleanliness and hygiene of both cattle and handlers
· Nowadays –mechanized handling (reduces contamination by handler)
Scientific management of dairy farms:
1. Stringent cleanliness and hygiene of both cattle and handlers
2. Regular inspections
3. Proper record keeping
4. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor (mandatory) Poultry Farm Management
Ø Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their eggs. They typically include chicken and ducks, and sometimes turkey and geese.
Ø The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of only these birds, but in a more general sense it may refer to the meat of other birds too.
Important components of poultry farm management:
· selection of disease free and suitable breeds,
· proper and safe farm conditions,
· proper feed and water, and
· hygiene and health care


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